The Prague Stringology Conference 2008

Paweł Baturo, Marcin Piątkowski and Wojciech Rytter

Usefulness of Directed Acyclic Subword Graphs in Problems Related to Standard Sturmian Words

Abstract:
The class of finite Sturmian words consists of words having particularly simple compressed representation, which is a generalization of the Fibonacci recurrence for Fibonacci words. The subword graphs of these words (especially their compacted versions) have a very special regular structure. The regularity of their structure has been discovered in the context of the counting property of graphs. In this paper we investigate the structure of these subword graphs in more detail than in the previous papers. As an application we show how several syntactical properties of Sturmian words follow their graph properties. Alternative graph-based proofs of several known facts are presented. Also the neat structure of subword graphs of Sturmian words leads to algorithms computing several parameters (e.g. number of subwords, critical factorization point, short description of lexicographically maximal suffix, the structure of occurrences of subwords of a fixed length, right special factors) of standard Sturmian words in linear time with respect to the length n of the compressed representation: the directive sequence (though the words themselves can be of exponential size with respect to n). Some of the computed parameters can be of exponential size, however they have linear size grammar-based representation. This gives more examples of fast computations for highly compressed words.

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